Genioplasty – Shaping of
the Lower Jaw
When the chin is proportionate to the rest of the facial features, the appearance is harmonic,, a malpositioned chin may look far less appealing. An aesthetic appearance of the chin is obtained when the lower jaw extends as far forward as the lower lip projects. The chin also plays an important role to balance the shape of the nose, cheeks, and other facial structures Some patients have a retruded chin line, this occurs when the structure of the lower jaw is underdeveloped and there is poor projection of the chin. A small, receding chin can give the person a weak and timid appearance; a first impression that may not representative of his true personality.
Several surgical options are available for the treatment of chin deformities. Use of chin implants and sliding genioplasty represent the 2 currently accepted methods of chin augmentation. Techniques for chin reduction include genioplasty and direct chin reduction. Skeletal surgery has stood the test of time, and still remains a valuable procedure for the Plastic surgeon.
The preoperative work up includes a complete history , physical examination, including dental history with occlusal evaluation along with standard facial photographs. In the analysis of the facial profile, the face is divided into thirds. Then the chin can be assessed to determine if it is in harmony with the remainder of the face.
In addition to the facial analysis, study of dental occlusion and skeletal structures with the aid of preoperative photography as well as cephalometric and panoramic radiography.( OPG ) Functional and cosmetic goals should be then discussed with the patient.The radiological tests include , lateral cephalometric study, anteroposterior (AP) skull radiography, and occlusal panoramic radiography.
SURGICAL PROCEDURE- The surgery is usually done under General Anaesthesia. The cuts are made inside the mouth, so there is no scar visible externally. The chin is cut from back to front on both sides with a saw, separating a horseshoe-shape of bone. This detached bone segmented can be advanced forwards to increase the chin projection as well as the chin width. The advanced bone segment is fixed in its new place with Titanium plate and screws. The mucosal wounds inside the mouth are sutured with dissolving stitches.
Complications of Genioplasty can include – Bleeding ,Infection of the wound ,Nerve damage., Damage to the nearby soft tissues may be likely,, surgeries of the face can truly affect the muscles , it can cause some pain and discomfort of the muscles making it difficult for the patient to chew food., Teeth damage is also said to be a complication. There can be some swelling of the jaws and cheeks for a couple of weeks.